Unless you are
sure someone will come looking for you, it may fall upon you
to get yourself out. With a few basic techniques and some
instruction in basic navigation, you can make it out alive.
In the fast paced electronic age of
today, we have a host of navigational aids. We still use the old
standby compass. there are map compasses, lensatic compasses, and
compasses that sit on the dash board of our car or truck, or pin to
the lapel of our shirt or coat. There are even electronic compasses
on some high end watches, and smart phones.
If you want to be able
to pinpoint your location within a couple of meters, GPS is the way
to go. While any compass uses the earths magnetic poles, a GPS unit
uses satellites floating in geosynchronous orbit above the earth to
triangulate our exact location. A GPS unit gives us latitude and
longitude, as well as our altitude. Units for backpackers and
outdoor enthusiasts even have the ability to download detailed
topographical maps to help aid in navigation.
The GPS and map program on my
iPhone provides me
with spoken turn by turn directions to anyplace I may choose to walk
or drive. The wonders of the modern world are truly mind boggling.
But what happens when your battery dies, or when you look down for a
quick directional check, only to find that cool compass attached to
the lapel of your jacket was pulled off by the last thicket you
pushed your way through? How would you find your way if you and your
priceless lensatic compass become forever separated?
I was on a trip through a remote part of Canada when my canoe
tipped in a stretch of rapids. I made it to shore in time to see my
pack disappear around the next river bend. We cannot foresee all of
the problems life may throw at us. It is our job to be prepared to
get ourselves out of those little predicaments.
There are numerous ways in which we can navigate without
a compass or GPS unit. I will outline 5 widely used and relatively
accurate methods. Our first step is to make sure we all know the basic directions.
Proceeding clockwise from the top, they are North, East, South, and
We have but to determine just one compass point. Once we have
identified that one point, we then know each of the others, and should
know which way we have to go to get ourselves out. For those of you
who do not know how a compass works, if you face North and extend
your arms straight out to your sides, your right hand will be
pointing East, while your right is pointing West, and your butt is
Methods of Navigation
Improvised Sun Dial method
The Watch Method:
I love tools which can perform more than one task. In a
survival situation this is essential because weight is a definite
concern. I always wear a watch. If not on my wrist, I have a
pocket watch. It is invaluable to help determine my speed of
travel, as well as telling me how much daylight I have left. If
you make sure the watch you wear is an analog watch, meaning it
has hands, rather than a digital, you can easily use it as a
pretty accurate compass. All you need is to be able to see the
The process is really quite simple. Take your watch off of your
wrist, or out of your pocket, and aim the hour hand, that is the
small hand boys and girls, directly at the sun. If you are in the
northern hemisphere, half way between the hour hand and the 12 is
As illustrated in this graphic, it is almost 3:30 pm. We point
the hour hand at the sun, then draw a line to the 12:00 position.
We then draw another imaginary line that splits the distance, and
that is due South. Once we have that, we know that North is behind
us, East is to our left, and West to our right.
If you are in the Southern Hemisphere It works exactly the same
only different. the line bisecting the 12 and the hour hand now
There is one other slight caveat. If your watch is set for
daylight savings time, you must use the 1 instead of the 12, because
the watch has been set an hour ahead. The closer to you get to the
equator, the less accurate this method becomes. This is due to the
fact that the sun is almost directly overhead.
The Sun Dial Method:
This method again makes use of the sun, and it does not matter
if you are on the equator, it is still extremely accurate. It
takes a bit longer than the watch method, so you might start it
while breaking camp, and complete it when you have finished.
You will need a couple of supplies. Start out by gathering a
sturdy stick about 3ft long, that is roughly a meter for
our non American friends. You will also need two small rocks or
Now that you have your supplies, we are going to make a sundial
of sorts. Find an open place in direct sunlight. Start by clearing
an area roughly 6ft in diameter. Make sure there is no loose leaf
matter or other debris. You do not need to remove grass or
anything like that. Find the rough center of your area, and pound
one of the sticks into the ground far enough that the wind will
not knock it over. Make sure it is straight up and down.
Now take one of your two stones, and place it where the tip of
the shadow cast by the stick touches the ground. Do not move this
stone. This point just became West. You can even draw a W on the
ground next to the stone. Now we just sit and wait a while. The
longer you can let this step go, the more accurate your results
will be. I have used it with good results after leaving it as
little as 30 minutes, but I would recommend an hour minimum.
After your hour has passed, take a look at the position of the
stick's shadow now. It has moved quite a bit. Place your second
stone at the tip of this new shadow. This point represents East.
Now draw a line between these two rocks. You now have an East West line.
If you stand with the West stone at your left, and East stone at
your right, North will be straight ahead, and South will be behind
you. This method also does not need a
cloud free day. I have used it in cloud cover, when I was not sure
there was even a shadow being cast.
Note: The above figure is borrowed from
the US Army Survival Manual.
Back To Navigation
The Vegetation Method:
I am sure we have all heard the old adage,
"Moss grows on the North side of trees". There are those who
believe it, and there are just as many who do not. I say
unequivocally that yes, moss does grow on the North side of a tree. It
also grows on the East side, the South side, and the West
side. It grows all around a tree. Navigation by the vegetation
method is more of an art than a science. Do not get me wrong,
there is hard science behind what I am about to tell you.
In the Northern Hemisphere, the sun
travels in an arc across the southern sky. This sun provides more
heat and warmth to the Southern side of trees. That means that the
North side does not get direct sunlight, allowing it to stay more
moist and damp. Moist and damp are precisely what most mosses need to
thrive. It does not mean it cannot grow in the sun, it just means
it grows best in the shade. We can use this information to aid in
our navigation. It will be necessary to look at a number of trees
in an area, and make note of where they have the most moss build
up. This will be the northerly side of the tree.
Having a little knowledge about botany can
give you invaluable navigation information. Plants use a process
called photosynthesis to convert sunlight into energy. Think of
the leaves as the solar panels.
The more leaves a plant has, the more energy it can make. There is
only so much room on any given branch for a tree to grow leaves.
The tree gets around this fact of nature by producing multiple
branches. This allows for more real estate upon which to put its
solar panels. In order for a solar panel to work it has to be
pointed at the sun. The more sun, the more energy it can convert.
Plants are Phototropic, meaning that they position themselves
toward the sun. The more leaves a tree has facing the sun, the
more energy the tree can make. We can therefore logically infer
that a tree will have more branches facing toward the sun. We can use this knowledge to aid our navigation. You will once
again have to look at a sampling of taller trees in the area. Most
of the trees will have a larger number of branches on their
If you take the information you learned
from the moss, and the information you learned from the tree
branches, this should give you a pretty good idea of North and
It is important to
remember that that is reversed in the southern hemisphere.
Back To Navigation
Many people enjoy the light of the moon. There was even a popular
song about it recorded in 1909. But as is usually the case, fact
is often much different than fiction. The moon has no light of
it's own. The light we see is actually solar light reflected off
the surface of the moon. When the moon is between the earth and
the sun, we see the moon's dark side.
This phenomenon is called a new moon. As the moon moves from
directly between the earth and the sun, the right side becomes
partially illuminated, this is called a waxing moon. The moon
continues to wax until the earth is directly between the sun and
moon, and becomes a full moon. As it begins
to move back into our shadow it is called a waning moon. I always
thought that each time the earth passed between the sun and moon,
it caused a lunar eclipse, but that is not the case. The moon is
usually on a different plane than the earth, that is why it
appears full. On the few times each year the moon and earth share
the same plane, it results in a lunar eclipse. And conversely when
the moon shares the same plane as the earth, but is positioned
directly between the earth and sun, there is a solar eclipse.
use this knowledge to aid with navigation as well. If the Moon
rises before the sun has set, the lighted side points West. If
however it rises after midnight, the illuminated side points East.
This gives you a rough idea of that all important single compass
Back To Navigation
Because the evening stars are in a constant state of flux,
navigation by star changes based upon where you are on this
beautiful blue orb.
In the Northern
Hemisphere you can tell direction by locating a couple of
familiar constellations in the night sky. If you learn to
recognize the Ursa Major, also known as the Big Dipper, and
Cassiopeia, you can find Polaris, the north star. Neither
constellation ever sets, they rotate around the North Star. The
Big Dipper consists of 7 stars shaped like a large water dipper.
Because they point directly at the North Star, the two stars
forming the outer lip of this dipper are called the pointing
stars. Trace a mental line from the bottom star through the top
one. Now extend this line about 5 times the distance between the
pointer stars, and you will find the North Star.
The only hitch in
this method is that there is also a little dipper, Ursa Minor.
To further complicate things, Polaris, the North Star forms part
of the handle of the little dipper. It is therefore important
that you find
right dipper. You will spend a frustrating night if you are
erroneously navigating by the Little Dipper. Enter the lovely
Cassiopeia. Cassiopeia consists of five stars arranged like a
large W that has been tipped over onto it's side. Cassiopeia and
the Big Dipper are across from one another in the northern sky.
As a matter of fact, they rotate counterclockwise around
Polaris. If you draw a mental line from the center point of
Cassiopeia's W, and a mental line from the pointing stars of the
Big Dipper, they will meet at the North Star.
Now all you need to
do is draw a mental line straight down from the North Star, and
that will be the north pole.
In the Southern Hemisphere it is completely different. There
is no star bright enough over the southern
to be easily recognizable as a Southern Star. For this reason we
use the Southern Cross or Crux as a sign post pointing us in a
general southerly direction. The Southern Cross consists of 5
stars. Its four brightest stars form a cross which tilts to one
side. The stars of the longer side are the pointing stars. To
determine South, imagine a distance five times the distance
between these stars, and the point where this imaginary line
ends is the general direction of South. Look down to the horizon
from this imaginary point and select a landmark to steer by.
Back To Navigation
I drew the illustration of the watch method. I
then started the others, but thought better of it, and got out my
copy of the US Army Survival Manual for the remaining three